Robert C. Daniels

Author / Adjunct History Professor

Author of: 

- 1220 Days: the story of U.S. Marine Edmond Babler and his experiences in Japanese Prisoner of War Camps during World War II

- World War II in Mid-America:  Experiences from rural Mid-American during the Second World War 

- Several published military history articles at


Order Autographed copies of books directly from the author

(Bookstore owners, please email for special pricing.)




About 1220 Days

About World War II in Mid-America

Order autographed copies

About Touring the Black Hawk War

Exploring Norfolk Cemeteries Project


Articles within this website:

Read Interviews

Ed Gein:  the Cannibal Myth Exposed

Ardin Biggerstaff's Black Hawk War Diary


The following are licensed as for free use under Creative Commons (CC BY 4.0)

The Birth and Rise of Christianity (CC BY 4.0)

Ancient World Civilization Timelines (CC BY 4.0)

Ancient Adena, Hopewell, and Fort Ancient Ohio Mounds (CC BY 4.0)

Aztalan State Park Mounds (CC BY 4.0)

My Egyptian Pyramid Pictures (CC BY 4.0)

My Stonehenge Pictures (CC BY 4.0)

Italy:  Rome, Pisa,  Vesuvius, Pompeii Pictures (CC BY 4.0)

Israel Pictures (CC BY 4.0) 

American Civil War Battle-Sites and Other Pictures (CC BY 4.0)

Additional American Civil War Battle-Sties and Other Pictures (BY 4.0)

Local (Tidewater, VA) Historical Selfie Tour (CC BY 40)


Read Some of My Published Articles:

The 1712 to 1736 Fox Wars

World War II Veteran Interview

Hell Ship - From the Philippines to Japan

Interview of a WWII Veteran

The Failures at Spion Kop

The Quality of the Combatants in the Black Hawk War

The Muslim Horde's Easy Invasion of Iberia

MacArthur's Failures in the Philippines

Failures of Democracy Led to the Rise of Communism during the Spanish Civil War

Hitler, Germany's Worst General


Ancient Indian Mounds of Wisconsin


The following pictures were taken by Robert Daniels in June 2022


(Ancient Indian Mounds of Wisconsin Article by Robert Daniels is licensed under CC BY 4.0.)



Wisconsin has numerous ancient Indian mounds, including burial mounds and effigy mounds.  I have over the years visited several of these, but, alas, have only recently been able to spend some time taking pictures, and then only at what is now called the Aztalan State Park mounds.  Below are these pictures.



Aztalan State Park Mounds

(Located at N6200 County Road Q, Jefferson, Wisconsin)


Situated along the Crawfish River in south-central Wisconsin, two miles east of Lake Mills and roughly halfway between Milwaukee and Madison, the Aztalan State Park was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and two years later, in 1966, added to the National Register of Historic Places.  It covers 172 acres along the western bank of the Crawfish River and contains the remains of what is today called Aztalan, a northern outpost of the ancient Mississippian culture (800 C.E. to 1600 C.E.) - the culture itself was based about 300 miles south at Cahokia, just east of St. Louis, Missouri.

The Aztalan complex was built sometime between 1100 and 1000 C.E., but the area had been occupied as far back as 8,000 years ago.  Archeologists have found earlier conical mounds across the Crawfish River from Aztalan and and the remains of a house, pottery, and artifacts just south of the village which predate Aztalan by a thousand years.  In addition, a portion of a Late Woodland Period (900-1650 C,E,) stockaded village once stood at the lower regions of the Aztalan State Park site.  It is believed that the mounds that were located across the river were related to this village.  Like the earlier village, Aztalan was surrounded by a wooden stockade, most likely for protection.  Many ancient Indian villages were so surrounded beginning around 500 C.E. when bow and arrow use first became wide-spread in North America. 

It is thought that the site was already a town when the Mississippians arrived somewhere around 1000 C.E,, and that Aztalan was occupied by the Mississippians until 1250 C.E., when it was abandoned about the same time as Cahokia to the south.  The Crawfish River bordering the site contains the remnants of a fish weir, which can be seen during times of low water.

When I visited Aztalan and took my pictures, it was one of the hottest days of the year, with the area going through an abnormal heat wave.  As such, I was not able to spend more than about an hour at the site and I had only one bottle of water and no rags with me, so I could not wash off the bird droppings on some of the interpretive markers.  Therefore, I beg forgiveness for the distracting bird droppings on and partially obscuring several of the below pictures.

For additional information on the site and the park, visit The Friends of Aztalan State Park website at

As always, not being a professional photographer, I do my best at taking these pictures.  I hope you enjoy them.


(Also see my Ancient Adena, Hopewell, and Fort Ancient Ohio Mounds page)


The site offers a free and informative 16-page Walking Tour Brochure.





The above are a historical marker and the first three of numerous plaques located throughout the park.  All four of these above are situated at the parking lot at the entrance of the park.


Here are views from two different angles of the burial mounds that are located in the park but west of the actual Aztalan village itself.  They are near County Road Q and north of the parking area at the entrance of the park.


A view from the entrance parking lot of the northwest corner of Aztalan Village with reconstructed partial wooden palisade.  Note the Northwest Mortuary Mound behind the palisade wall.



Two separate views of the Northwest Mortuary Mound, the one on the top is the west-side view and the one on the bottom is the south-side view.  The Northwest Mortuary Mound is a platform mound rising 9 feet high, oriented north-south, and is 82 by 105 feet at its base (Aztalan Walking Tour Brochure).





Four more plaques.  These are located along a walking path between the Northwest Mortuary Mound and the Main Mound.  Sorry, once again, about the bird droppings.  I simply did not have the water and rags with me available to clean them off before taking the pictures.


A view of the west side of the Temple Mound, seen from the walking path leading from the Northwest Mortuary Mound to the Main Mound.  The Crawfish River (not actually in view) is located behind this mound.  The Northeast Temple Mound is considered a platform mound and is oriented east-west.  It is believed to have been 5 feet high when in use, but over the years it as been reduced by modern farmers (Aztalan Walking Tour Brochure).


A view of the north side of Main Mound taken from the top of the Northwest Mortuary Mound.  Notice the walking path and the four previously pictured plaques, as well as the reconstructed palisade walls to the west (right).



Two additional north-side pictures of the Main Mound.


Reconstructed palisade walls west of the Main Mound.




 Two additional plaques.



Two pictures of east-side views of the Main Mound.  This mound, considered the largest of the site's mounds, consists of two tiers, a larger rectangular base and a smaller squared top mound.  It is overall 16 feet tall and measures 130 by 185 feet at the base of the lower tier of the mound, and is considered a platform mound.  The front of the mound, as pictured above, is facing east (Aztalan Walking Tour Brochure).



Two views of the Southeast Mound, the first taken from the top of the Main Mound and the second relatively close to the mound itself.  This mound is a large circular or oval mound (Aztalan Walking Tour Brochure).


View of the Burial Mounds (left) Main Mound (center) and southwestern palisade walls (left) from the southeast.



Two views of the Crawfish River.



The sun just did not cooperate the morning I took these pictures, but here are to additional plaques at the park.


(Also see my Ancient Adena, Hopewell, and Fort Ancient Ohio Mounds page)

Last updated on 13 Jul 2022 .   

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